Minimally Invasive Treatments for Varicose Veins

posted in: Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins that often appear blue or dark purple. They occur when faulty valves in the veins allow blood to flow in the wrong direction or pool. Most commonly found in the legs and feet, varicose veins are a cosmetic concern and can lead to significant discomfort.

Varicose veins can be more than just a cosmetic issue; they often cause pain, fatigue, and a feeling of heaviness in the legs, which can severely impact daily activities and quality of life. In severe cases, they can lead to more serious health complications such as skin ulcers, bleeding, and venous eczema. The psychological impact, including self-consciousness and reduced confidence due to their appearance, can also not be underestimated.

In response to the drawbacks of traditional surgical treatments, minimally invasive procedures have been developed to offer safer, quicker, and more effective alternatives. These treatments, which include sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, endovenous laser ablation, and VenaSeal, require minimal recovery time and typically result in less pain and fewer complications than conventional surgery. They are designed to close off varicose veins, allowing blood to reroute through healthier veins, thereby reducing the appearance and symptoms of varicose veins.

Non Surgical Varicose Vein Treatments - Vein Solutions


Varicose Veins

Varicose veins develop due to weakened or damaged vein walls and valves. In a healthy vein, valves open and close to allow blood to flow toward the heart and prevent it from flowing backwards. However, when these valves fail, or the vein walls weaken, blood can pool in the veins, causing them to enlarge and become varicose. This condition is primarily seen in the superficial veins of the legs, where gravity makes blood return to the heart more challenging.

Varicose veins affect up to 30% of the adult population in the UK at some point in their lives. The prevalence tends to increase with age, making it a significant concern for the ageing population. It is estimated that more than half of people over 50 experience some form of varicose veins, indicating the widespread nature of this vascular issue within the UK.

Risk Factors:

  • Age:
    The risk of developing varicose veins increases with age as the valves in the veins weaken over time.
  • Genetics:
    A family history of varicose veins significantly increases one’s risk, suggesting a genetic component to this condition.
  • Lifestyle:
    Factors such as obesity, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes (e.g., during pregnancy or menopause) can exacerbate the likelihood of developing varicose veins. These lifestyle factors increase the pressure on your veins, which can lead to valve malfunctions.
  • Occupational Hazards:
    Jobs that require prolonged standing or sitting can also increase the risk of varicose veins. In these scenarios, the blood does not circulate as effectively, which can lead to increased pressure in the veins of the legs.


Symptoms and Complications

Varicose veins are not only noticeable due to their blue or dark purple appearance but also because they often cause discomfort. Common symptoms include:

  • Pain:
    Aching or cramping in the legs, often described as a heavy or throbbing sensation.
  • Swelling:
    The ankles and feet may swell due to the accumulation of blood in the affected veins.
  • Visible Vein Changes:
    The veins may appear bulging, twisted, or cord-like and are more noticeable when standing.

While varicose veins are typically a non-serious condition, they can lead to more severe health issues if left untreated:

  • Ulcers:
    Painful ulcers may form on the skin near varicose veins, particularly near the ankles. These ulcers are caused by long-term fluid build-up in these tissues, resulting in skin breakdown.
  • Thrombophlebitis:
    Occasionally, veins deep within the legs become enlarged. In severe cases, these can lead to thrombophlebitis, an inflammatory process that causes a blood clot to form and block one or more veins, usually in your legs.
  • Bleeding:
    The skin over the veins becomes thin and easily injured. In such cases, bleeding may occur even with minor trauma. This bleeding can be sudden and difficult to stop.

It’s important to consult a healthcare provider if you experience:

  • Changes in the colour or condition of the skin near varicose veins, such as reddening or toughening of skin.
  • Persistent symptoms that cause discomfort or affect your daily activities.
  • Any signs of complications like ulcers, sudden swelling, or severe and sudden pain which could indicate thrombophlebitis.


Diagnosing Varicose Veins

The first step in diagnosing varicose veins typically involves consulting a General Practitioner (GP). During the consultation, the GP will ask about any symptoms experienced and a family history of varicose veins or related conditions. This is followed by a physical examination, during which the GP will look at the affected veins while you are standing to check for swelling, skin changes, and the extent of vein protrusion.

If further investigation is required, the GP may refer you for an ultrasound scan, the most common diagnostic tool for assessing the structure and function of the vein valves. Ultrasound imaging helps to determine the presence and severity of venous reflux or blockages. This non-invasive test provides detailed images of the veins’ condition and helps map out which veins are affected and how blood flows through them.

Other diagnostic tools that might be used include:

  • Venography:
    An invasive test where a contrast dye is injected into the veins, making them visible on X-ray images.
  • Photoplethysmography (PPG):
    A light sensor device used to measure changes in blood volume in the legs, indicating how healthy blood is moving through your veins.

Depending on the initial assessment and imaging results, your GP may refer you to a vascular specialist for further evaluation and treatment. In the NHS, referrals to specialists are based on the severity of the symptoms and the potential for complications.

The NHS pathway for managing varicose veins ensures that patients with more severe symptoms, such as skin changes, ulcers, or thrombophlebitis, receive prompt attention and are prioritised for specialist treatment. Those with less severe symptoms may be advised on lifestyle changes or offered compression stockings as an initial treatment to manage symptoms effectively.


Traditional vs. Minimally Invasive Treatments

Traditionally, the primary surgical treatment for varicose veins was vein stripping, where the affected veins are surgically removed from the leg. This operation is performed under general anaesthesia and involves making incisions through which the varicose veins are physically pulled out. Ligation, another traditional method, consists of tying off a vein before it joins a deep vein and removing the vein through more minor cuts.

Traditional surgical methods for treating varicose veins, while effective, come with several limitations:

  • Recovery Time:
    Patients typically require an extended recovery period, as these procedures are more invasive and involve significant physical trauma to the treated areas.
  • Pain and Scarring:
    Post-operative pain is common, and there is a higher risk of scarring due to the larger incisions needed.
  • Complications:
    As with any surgery performed under general anaesthesia, there is a risk of complications such as infection, nerve damage, or deep vein thrombosis.
  • Recurrence:
    There is a noticeable rate of recurrence of varicose veins after surgery, often necessitating additional treatments.

Minimally invasive treatments have gained popularity due to their ability to mitigate many of the downsides associated with traditional surgery:

  • Less Pain and Scarring:
    Procedures like sclerotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, endovenous laser therapy, and VenaSeal involve either no or tiny incisions, which significantly reduce pain and virtually eliminate scarring.
  • Reduced Recovery Time:
    These methods generally require no hospital stay, and patients can return to normal activities much more quickly, often within the same day.
  • Lower Risk of Complications:
    Minimally invasive treatments are performed under local anaesthesia, reducing the risks associated with general anaesthesia. The precise nature of these treatments also minimises the risk of nerve damage and infection.
  • Effectiveness:
    Studies have shown that these modern techniques provide outcomes that are as good as, or better than, traditional surgery regarding the elimination of symptoms and the improvement of vein appearance.
  • Outpatient Procedure:
    Being able to perform these treatments in an outpatient setting not only reduces costs but also makes the procedure more convenient for patients, reducing the overall stress and disruption to their lives.


Minimally Invasive Treatment Options

The treatment of varicose veins has seen significant advancements with the introduction of minimally invasive techniques. These methods are designed to reduce patient discomfort, shorten recovery times, and minimise the risk of complications compared to traditional surgeries. Here’s an overview of the most effective minimally invasive treatments currently available:


Sclerotherapy is a popular treatment for small to medium-sized varicose and spider veins. This procedure involves injecting a sclerosant solution directly into the varicose vein. The sclerosant irritates the vein’s lining, causing it to swell, stick together, and eventually become scar tissue that fades over time. Since this treatment requires no anaesthesia and has minimal recovery time, it is considered an outpatient procedure, ideal for those seeking a quick and effective solution to unsightly veins.

Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA)

Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) is a technique that uses radiofrequency energy to heat and damage the wall of the varicose vein, causing it to collapse and seal shut. This procedure is performed under local anaesthesia, using ultrasound to guide a thin catheter into the vein. RFA is particularly suitable for treating more prominent varicose veins in the legs. It is favoured for its effectiveness and minimal downtime, allowing patients to resume normal activities shortly after the procedure.

Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA)

Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA) employs a similar approach to RFA but uses laser energy instead of radio waves to seal the affected veins. A catheter is inserted into the vein, and a small laser fibre is activated to deliver precise energy, causing the vein to close. EVLA is known for its precision and is highly effective for more prominent varicose veins, providing relief with minimal scarring and reduced risk of recurrence.


VenaSeal represents a novel approach to the treatment of varicose veins. This procedure involves injecting a small amount of adhesive into the vein through a catheter. The vein is immediately sealed shut, effectively stopping blood flow through that vein. VenaSeal is particularly advantageous for patients seeking an alternative to thermal ablation techniques, as it requires no tumescent anaesthesia and carries a lower risk of nerve injury.


Minimally Invasive Procedures

Minimally invasive treatments for varicose veins not only offer effective relief but also feature simpler procedural and recovery protocols compared to traditional surgeries.

Before undergoing a minimally invasive treatment for varicose veins, patients typically go through the following preparatory steps:

  • Medical Evaluation:
    Patients receive a detailed medical evaluation, including a review of their medical history and a physical examination, to ensure the selected procedure is appropriate for their condition.
  • Medication Review:
    Any medications that might affect the procedure, such as blood thinners, are reviewed. Patients may need to stop or adjust these medications temporarily.
  • Ultrasound Mapping:
    Many procedures require a detailed ultrasound examination before treatment. This “mapping” helps identify the exact locations of faulty veins and guides the treatment plan.
  • Pre-Procedure Instructions:
    Patients receive specific instructions to prepare for the procedure, which may include fasting for a few hours if a sedative or anaesthesia is to be used.

The most commonly employed minimally invasive techniques for treating varicose veins include:

  • Sclerotherapy:
    This procedure involves injecting a solution into the varicose vein that causes it to scar and close, redirecting blood to healthier veins.
  • Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA):
    This technique uses thermal energy to heat and close the affected veins, with real-time ultrasound imaging guiding the procedure.
  • Laser Ablation (EVLA):
    Similar to RFA, but uses laser energy to achieve vein closure.
  • VenaSeal:
    This method involves the injection of a medical adhesive to seal the varicose vein, which is particularly useful for patients who prefer a non-thermal treatment option.

Post-procedure care is crucial for achieving the best outcomes and includes:

  • Immediate Post-Procedure Care:
    Patients can usually walk immediately after the procedure and are encouraged to do so to promote blood flow. However, strenuous activities should be avoided for a short period as recommended by the healthcare provider.
  • Compression Garments:
    Most treatments require wearing compression stockings for one to two weeks to support the healing process and minimise swelling.
  • Follow-Up Appointments:
    Follow-up visits are scheduled to assess the effectiveness of the treatment and ensure proper healing. These visits may include ultrasound exams to confirm that the treated veins remain closed.
  • Activity and Pain Management:
    Patients are advised to stay active to encourage circulation but should avoid heavy lifting and prolonged standing or sitting. Over-the-counter pain relievers can be used to manage any discomfort.
  • Signs of Complications:
    While rare, patients need to be aware of signs that could indicate complications, such as severe pain, swelling, or signs of infection at the injection site. Immediate medical attention should be sought if any of these occur.


Cost and Access to Treatment

The availability and cost of treatments for varicose veins in the UK vary widely depending on whether care is sought through the National Health Service (NHS) or private healthcare providers. Here, we will explore the NHS coverage, private treatment options, and the impact of regional variations on access to care.

NHS Options:

The NHS provides coverage for minimally invasive treatments for varicose veins. However, this is usually restricted to cases where the patient experiences significant symptoms such as pain, bleeding, or skin disorders like ulcers. The availability of specific treatments like Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) or Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA) can vary depending on the local Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) guidelines, which may result in variable access across different regions.

Patients eligible for treatment under the NHS are not required to pay for the procedure, which typically includes pre-treatment consultations and follow-up care. However, due to NHS funding constraints and prioritisation criteria, waiting times may occur that could prompt some patients to seek faster treatment privately.

Private Options:

Private healthcare offers an alternative route for those seeking more immediate or cosmetic treatment for varicose veins. Here are some typical costs associated with various treatments offered by private clinics in the UK, such as those provided by Vein Solutions:

  • Laser Ablation and Radio Frequency:
    Starting from £2,000 per leg.
  • Cyanoacrylate Glue:
    Starting from £3,000 per leg, it is known for its non-thermal closure method.
  • Foam Sclerotherapy:
    Typically starting at £850 per leg, it is a popular choice for smaller vein issues.
  • Multiple Phlebectomies:
    Starting from £500 per leg.

Additional costs include consultations and diagnostic tests:

  • Consultation with a Specialist:
    Around £170.
  • Ultrasound Scan:
    £200 for one leg and £300 for two legs, necessary for planning most types of varicose vein treatments.

Private clinics often offer free virtual consultations for more straightforward procedures and interest-free payment plans, making treatment more accessible for a broader range of patients.

Access to NHS and private varicose vein treatments can vary significantly by region. Some areas may have more specialists and clinics available, reducing wait times and increasing the range of treatment options. In contrast, rural or less populated regions might need more access, requiring patients to travel significant distances for treatment.

For instance, larger cities like London or Manchester may offer more comprehensive services in both NHS and private facilities compared to more remote areas. This disparity can affect the speed of accessing treatment and the type of treatments available to patients.


Lifestyle Modifications

Managing varicose veins often extends beyond medical procedures. Lifestyle modifications and home remedies can play a crucial role in alleviating symptoms and preventing the condition from worsening.

Making positive changes to one’s lifestyle can significantly impact the management and progression of varicose veins:

  • Diet:
    A balanced diet high in fibre can help prevent constipation, which may exacerbate varicose veins due to the straining that increases pressure on the veins in the lower body. Foods rich in bioflavonoids, such as berries, cherries, and spinach, can also strengthen the walls of the veins.
  • Exercise:
    Regular physical activity improves blood circulation and helps lower blood pressure, both crucial factors in managing varicose veins. Low-impact exercises such as walking, cycling, and swimming are particularly beneficial as they help pump blood without exerting excessive pressure on the veins.
  • Weight Management:
    Maintaining a healthy weight reduces the pressure on veins and can alleviate the symptoms and progression of varicose veins. Obesity is a significant risk factor for varicose veins, and weight loss can be one of the most effective ways to manage the condition.

Compression stockings are specially designed to squeeze your legs to improve circulation steadily. They are a cornerstone in managing varicose vein symptoms and offer several benefits:

  • When to Use:
    Compression stockings are best worn during the day and removed at night. They should be put on before getting out of bed in the morning when swelling is minimal.
  • How to Use:
    Ensure the stockings are smooth and evenly fitted around the leg, without any bunching or slipping, which can impede circulation rather than improve it. Choosing the correct size and compression level is vital, often determined based on a doctor’s recommendation.

Regular medical check-ups are crucial for individuals managing varicose veins:

  • Early Detection of Complications:
    Regular follow-ups can help catch any complications, such as ulcers or deep vein thrombosis, early in their onset.
  • Monitoring Treatment Efficacy:
    Following medical or surgical treatment, periodic evaluations ensure that the treated veins remain closed and that the blood flow has been successfully rerouted to healthy veins.
  • Adjusting Treatment Plans:
    Lifestyle changes and compression garment needs may evolve, requiring adjustments to treatment plans to ensure optimal management of the condition.


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